What are the signs and symptoms of DKD?
Albumin/protein in the urine
Weakness, paleness and anemia
Ankle and leg swelling, leg cramps
Less need for insulin or antidiabetic medications
Morning sickness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting
An increased need to pee - particularly at night
High or elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
Are there any additional risk factors?
Some risks factors can also contribute to the development and progression of DKD in diabetic patients:
• Sustained hyperglycemia: that is when the levels of sugar in the blood are not well controlled and remain elevated for long periods of time.
• Dyslipidemia: high levels of fatty acids in the blood (i.e, cholesterol and triglycerides)
• High blood pressure
• Previous damage to the kidneys
• Diet: diets rich in sodium, protein of fat can also have an impact in the development of DKD in diabetic patients.
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2. KDOQI. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 49:S12.
3. Diabetic Nephropathy: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment. Jorge L. Gross, Mirela J. de Azevedo, Sandra P. Silveiro, Luís Henrique Canani, Maria Luiza Caramori, Themis Zelmanovitz. Diabetes Care Jan 2005, 28 (1) 164-176; DOI: 10.2337/diacare.28.1.164.
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